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Mocking Capacitor Plugins

When creating unit tests within your application, it is a best practice to create mocks for any external dependency to the unit that is under test. This includes Capacitor plugins that your component or service is using.

Most mocking libraries create mocks by taking an object and wrapping it in a JavaScript proxy so calls to the methods on that object can be examined and the return values of the methods can be controlled. Capacitor plugins, however, are implemented within the JavaScript layer as proxies. Creating a proxy of a proxy is not supported and fails. Manual mocks can be used to circumvent this issue.

Manual Mocks

Manual mocks allow the user to easily stub the functionality of an entire JavaScript module. As a result, when the tests do an import { Storage } from '@capacitor/storage', instead of loading the real Storage JavaScript proxy object, the tests would load something like this:

export const Storage = {
  async get(data: { key: string }): Promise<{ value: string | undefined }> {
    return { value: undefined };
  },

  async set(data: { key: string; value: string }): Promise<void> {},
  async clear(): Promise<void> {},
};

Since this is a plain JavaScript objecct and not a proxy object, it is very easy to spy on. Also, since it is a mock it does not try to make any native calls. This makes the use of manual mocks an ideal choice to use when testing code that uses Capacitor plugins.

Jest

The Jest testing framework has manual mocks built in to it. Create a __mocks__/@capacitor folder at the root of your project, and Jest will automatically load files from there rather than from node_modules.

For example, let’s say you have the following directory structure:

.
|
+- __mocks__
| |
| +- @capacitor
|   |
|   +- storage.ts
|   +- toast.ts
...
+- src

Your tests will use the stubs defined in storage.ts and toast.ts rather than the real @capactor/storage and @capacitor/toast plugins from node_modules.

Jasmine

The Jasmine testing framework does not include the concept of “manual mocks” but we can easily simulate this through the use of TypeScript path mapping.

First, create the same directory structure at the root level of your project just like you would for the Jest example.

Angular projects (the most common scenario in which you would be using Jasmine as a testing framework) include a tsconfig.spec.json file that extends the tsconfig.json base configuration when unit tests are being executed. Modify this file to extend any paths mapping you may have at the base level.

For example, if your tsconfig.json file contains the following paths mapping:

    "paths": {
      "@app/*": ["src/app/*"],
      "@env/*": ["src/environments/*"]
    },

Then update your tsconfig.spec.json file to include those paths plus any you would like to use for the unit tests:

    "paths": {
      "@app/*": ["src/app/*"],
      "@env/*": ["src/environments/*"],
      "@test/*": ["test/*"],
      "@capacitor/*": ["__mocks__/@capacitor/*"]
    }

Now when the unit tests are compiled, import { Storage } from '@capacitor/storage'; will use the stub file under __mocks__/@capactor rather than the real one in node_modules.

Note: the paths object is replaced entirely rather than being merged, so if you have any paths defined at in tsconfig.json they must also be included in tsconfig.spec.json.

Mocking the Stubs

With the manual mocks in place, the tests can now be written to mock and spy on the method calls in all of the usual ways.

Jest

  it("gets the first and last name", async () => {
    Storage.get = jest.fn().mockImplementation(
      async (data: { key: string }): Promise<{ value: string }> => {
        return data.key === "firstName"
          ? { value: "Jimmy" }
          : data.key === "lastName"
          ? { value: "Simms" }
          : { value: "unknown" };
      }
    );
    const w = mount(Home);
    await flushPromises();
    expect(w.vm.firstName).toEqual("Jimmy");
    expect(w.vm.lastName).toEqual("Simms");
  });

  it("clears the storage", () => {
    const button = wrapper.findComponent('[data-testid="clear"]');
    Storage.clear = jest.fn().mockResolvedValue(undefined);
    button.trigger("click");
    expect(Storage.clear).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1);
  });

Jasmine

  it("gets the first and last name", async () => {
    spyOn(Storage, 'get');
    (Storage.get as any)
      .withArgs({ key: 'firstName' })
      .and.returnValue(Promise.resolve({ value: 'Jason' }));
    (Storage.get as any)
      .withArgs({ key: 'lastName' })
      .and.returnValue(Promise.resolve({ value: 'Jones' }));

    fixture.detectChanges();
    await fixture.whenRenderingDone();

    expect(component.firstName).toEqual('Jason');
    expect(component.lastName).toEqual('Jones');
  });

  it('clears the storage', () => {
    spyOn(Storage, 'clear');
    click(clear.nativeElement);
    fixture.detectChanges();
    expect(Storage.clear).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1);
  });

Examples

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